With the program SC-102P you get a powerful and freely available scientific calculator for the Palm platform. Apart from scientific functions it also offers a full set of logical operations and conversions between different numeric systems. Therefore, it is especially useful for computer engineers and programmers. The program is designed in a way, that it simulates the visual and operational aspects of a true calculator, such that the user will be immediately familiar with its interface.



The calculator program SC-102P can be executed on all devices equipped with the Palm Operating System version 2.0 or higher. In addition, it requires the freely available MathLib which is shipped as part of the calculator for your convenience. The calculator program automatically adapts to single and multi color devices. There are no different versions needed. The calculator SC-102P is shipped in three different languages: English, german and esperanto. They have variations only in the language of menu items and setting dialog boxes. The key and display labeling remains the same. To select the desired language, you have to install the proper program module. Since the name of the program module is the same for all languages, you can only have one language version installed at the same time.

Installation of the SC-102P on the Palm Device

The calculator program SC-102P as well as the MathLib have to be installed on your Palm device. The SC-102P uses the MathLib for some of its calculations. If you don't know, how to install additional applications on your Palm device, please refer to the instruction manual which is shipped with your Palm device.

Installation Procedure:

  1. First, install the file MathLib.prc on your Palm device, if it isn't already installed.
    NOTE: Due to the fact that the MathLib is required by many Palm applications, it is probably already installed on your Palm device and you don't have to install it again. (The MathLib is not visible as an application. If you are not sure if the MathLib is already on your Palm device, then simply install it to be safe.)
  2. Select one of the available language versions of the SC-102P. You find the various language versions in the subdirectories english, deutsch and esperanto. Install the containing file SC-102P.prc on your Palm device as usual.
  3. Now you should find an application called SC-102P in the category "unfiled". If you select the corresponding symbol, the SC-102P will be displayed.


To display the preferences window, select the menu item "Preferences...", which is located in the "Options" menu.

Here you can control the flickering effect of the displayed numbers while pressing an operator key like . You can enable and disable the flickering and additionally you can specify the amount of time the display will be hidden to cause the flickering effect.

The flickering of the display serves as a visual feedback to show you that the calculator has accepted your input. In addition, the pressed key will be highlighted but this effect is often not noticable during fast input because of the delay time of the usually used liquid crystal displays.

The flickering effect of the display can be made stronger or softer. If a greater hide time is selected, the display will be hidden for a longer time and the flickering effect will be stronger. Select a value according to your personal taste.
Note: If the flickering effect is enabled, then the display will be dark as long as you press a key. If you release the key before the selected hide time is reached, then the display will stay dark at least until the selected hide time is over. Not all keys, e.g. number keys, result in a flickering effect of the display because some result in a visual display change anyway and also to simply prevent a too nervous display.


The calculator SC-102P offers two general operating modes for different tasks. To select the desired operating mode there are the two vertically arranged fields at the right border of the display which are labeled SCIENTIFIC and LOGIC. To select the desired operating mode, tip on the corresponding field with the stylus. The field indicating the currently selected mode is shown in a dark background color.

On color devicesOn B/W devices

In SCIENTIFIC mode, the SC-102P acts like a scientific calculator with 14 digits. In LOGIC mode, conversions between four different numeric systems are possible and basic arithmetic calculations and boolean operations can be performed.


The Palm handheld can be used like a calculator with 14 digits. For that purpose the program SC-102P has to be switched into SCIENTIFIC mode. You can activate the SCIENTIFIC mode by tapping on the corresponding field at the right border.

How the calculator in SCIENTIFIC mode looks like:

On color devicesOn B/W devices


Now we will perform some simple calculations. Press the following keys and look at the display:


Did you get the right result? If not, press the key and try the same calculation again.
Next, the value of pi () should be recalled. The symbol "" is located above the key . Press the symbol.


The Display now shows the value of .
Now 104 should be calculated. For this operation the function 10x will be used.

4 10000.

Following the most important keys will be outlined:

(Clear) (red rsp. dark key)

If this key is pressed immediately after input of numerical data or after a recall of the memory contents, this data will be cleared. In any other case, pressing the key clears the operator and/or the numerical data which have been entered. The content of the memory will not be cleared by pressing the key.

123  456 456.
786 912.(123 + 789 = 912)
 2 12.
 2 12.

The key can also be used to clear an error condition.


(Display mode switch)

With this key you can switch the display mode for the result of a calculation from floating point system (normal mode) to fixed point system (FIX), scientific notation (SCI), engineering notation (ENG) or vise versa.

23  1000 

(specifies the number of decimal digits)

In comibation with a number key, this key can be used to specify the number of decimal digits (digits after the decimal point). Press the clear key so that "0." is displayed. Press the key , then "0.000" (FIX mode) appeares on the display.

1. Specification of 2 decimal digits.

5 8

2. Specification of 5 decimal digits.


(specifies the angular mode)

This key is used to specify the angular mode for numerical data for trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometrc functions and coordinate transformations.


180° = (rad) = 200g

DEG: Degree [°]
RAD: Radian [rad]
GRAD: Grad [g]

(transforms between angular modes)

This key is used for transformations between angular modes and simultaneously specifies the angular mode for numerical data for trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometrc functions and coordinate transformations.


to , , and

: Used to enter numbers in exponential notation (an "E" following the entered number appears on the display).
4 34.E 003(4 × 103)

: Used to enter negative numbers (or to inverse the sign from negative to positive).
1.23 -1.23
5 -1.23E-005(-1.23 × 10-5)


With this key the last entered digit can be deleted.

579.(123 + 456 = 579)
1.456  191.456E 019
1.456E 001.
21.456E 012.
 1000 1456000000.(1.456 × 1012 / 1000 = 1456000000)

Basic Usage

1. Addition and Subtraction

Input: 12 45.6 32.1 789 741 213
Result: 286.5

2. Multiplication and Division

a. Input: 841 586 12
Result: 41068.833333333
b. Input: 427 54 32 7 39 2
Result: 595.85714285714

Note that multiplication and division have priority over addition and subtraction. Internally, the calculator first calculates the multiplication and division.

Multiplication with a constant:
The value entered first acts as a constant.
Input: 3 5 Result: 15
Input: 10 Result: 30

Division with a constant:
The value entered after the division sign acts as a constant.
Input: 15 3 Result: 5
Input: 30 Result: 10

Depending on the priority, the calculator puts some calculations in pending state. In case of chain calculations, the last calculation instruction, taking into account the priority rules, and the relevant numeric value are retained and can be used for further calculations or as constants, respectively.

+ b × c =+ bc(Constant addition)
a × b ÷ c =÷ c(Constant division)
a ÷ b × c =a/b ×(Constant multiplication)
a × b - c =- c(Constant subtraktion)

3. Memory Calculations

The independently accessible memory can be maintained with the three keys , and . Before starting a calculation clear the memory by pressing and .
If a value other than zero is stored in memory "" is displayed.

Input: 12 5
Result: 17
For subtraction enter: 2 5
Result of this equation: -7
Enter to recall memory contents: 10 will be displayed.
Input: 12 2
Result: 24 (replaces 10 in memory)
Input: 6 2
Result: 4
: 28

To subtract a value from memory contents, the keys and can be pressed.

In addition to the memory which can be modified with the key, there are 10 memory slots available which can be modified with to .
To read the contents of these memories you have to press the keys to just like for the main memory.

Scientific Calculations

To calculate trigonometric and inverse trigonometric equations and for coordinate transformations the angular mode has to be assigned. The assignment of the angular mode DEG, RAD or GRAD happens by pressing the key.

1. Trigonometric Functions

Exercise: sin 30° + cos 40°
Angular mode to DEG
Input: 30  + 40   Result: 1.266044443119
Exercise: cos 0,25
Angular mode to RAD
Input: 0.25     Result: 0.7071067811865

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Exercise: sin-1 0,5
Angular mode to DEG
Input: 0.5 Result: 30
Exercise: cos-1 -1
Angular mode to RAD
Input: 1 To input a negative number, press the
key after entering the number.
Result: 3.1415926535898 (Value of )

The results of inverse trigonometric functions are only valid between the following ranges:

 = sin-1 x,  = tan-1 x  = cos-1 x
DEG: -90 <=  <= 90 [°] DEG: 0 <=  <= 180 [°]
RAD: -/2 <=  <= /2 [rad] RAD: 0 <=  <=  [rad]
GRAD: -100 <= <= 100 [g] GRAD: 0 <= <= 200 [g]

3. Hyperbolic- and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

Exercise: sinh 4
Input: 4 Result: 27.289917197128
Exercise: sinh-1 9
Input: 9 Result: 2.8934439858859

4. Power Functions

Exercise: 202
Input: 20 Result: 400
Exercise: 33 and 34
Input: 3 3 Result: 27
Input: 3 4 Result: 81

5. Roots

Exercise: Square root of 25
Input: 25 Result: 5
Exercise: Cube root of 27
Input: 27 Result: 3
Exercise: Fourth root of 81
Input: 81 4 Result: 3

6. Logarithmic Functions

Exercise: ln 21, log 173
Natural Logarithms
Input: 21 Result: 3.0445224377234
Common Logarithms
Input: 173 Result: 2.2380461031288

7. Exponential Functions

Exercise: e3,0445
Input: 3.0445 Result: 20.999528813094 (see ln 21)
Exercise: 102,238
Input: 2.238 Result: 172.98163592151 (see log 173)

8. Reciprocals

Exercise: 1/6 + 1/7
Input: 6 7 Result: 0.3095238095238

9. Factorial

Exercise: 170!
Input: 170
Result: 7.257415615308E 306 (= 7,257415615308 × 10306)

On calculating the factorial it is easily possible to overflow the calculation limits of the SC-102P which results in the error indication "E". The section Calculation Range discusses the calculation limits of the calculator.

Exercise: 8P3 = 8!/(8-3)!
Input: 8 8 3
Result: 336

10. Percent calculations

Exercise: 45% of 2780 (2.780 × 45/100)
Input: 2780 45 Result: 1251
Exercise: 200 - 200 × 30/100
Input: 200 30 Result: 140

11. Angle/Time conversions

To convert an angle or time (°, ', ", rsp. hours, minutes, seconds) to its decimal equivalent the degrees have to be given as integer portion and the minutes and seconds as decimal digits.

Exercise: Transformation of 12°47'52" to its decimal equivalent
Input: 12.4752 Result: 12.797777777778

When converting decimal degrees to the equivalent degrees/minutes/seconds, the answer is broken down:
integer portion = degrees; 1st and 2nd decimal digits = minutes; 3rd and 4th digits = seconds; and 5th through end decimal digits are decimal seconds.

Exercise: Conversion of the decimal angle 24.7256 to its degree/minute/second equivalent
Input: 24.7256 Result: 24.433216 or 24°43'32"

A horse has leap times of 2 minutes 25 seconds, 2 minutes 38 seconds and 2 minutes 22 seconds. What is the average running time? Result 2: 0.0412037037037
Input: 0.0225 0.0238 0.0222
Result 1: 0.1236111111111
Input: 3
Result 3: 0.0228333333333
or the average time is 2 minutes 28 seconds.

12. Coordinate Conversion

Converting rectangular coordinates to polar (xy  r).

0 <= | | <= 180
0 <= | | <=
0 <= | | <= 200

Convert rectangular coordinates x = 6 and y = 4 to polar coordinates.
Angular mode: DEG
Input: 6 4 Result: 7.211102550928 (r)
Input: Result: 33.69006752598 ()

Calculate the magnitude and direction (phase) in a vector i = 12 + j9
Input: 12 9 Result: 15 (r)
Input: Result: 36.869897645844 ()

Converting polar coordinates to rectangular (r  xy).
Solve for P(14, /3), r = 14, 0 /3
Angular mode: RAD
Input: 3 14
Result: 7 (x)
Result: 12.124355652982 (y)
In the above example  = /3 is entered first and is replaced by r = 14 by pushing the key after entering r.

Usage of the Parenthesis Keys

Usage of the parenthesis keys and is required if series of calculations are combined together and the priority of operations has to be changed.
After pressing the key, "( )" is displayed in the top of the display.
Calculations between parenthesis have priority over all other calculations. The parentheses can be nested more than once. First the calculations between the innermost parenthesis will be made.

Exercise: 12 +42 ÷ (8 -6)
Input: 12  42   8  
Result: 33
Exercise: 126 ÷ {(3 + 4) × (3 - 1)}
Input: 126    3  4    3  1   
Result: 9

It is not neccessary to close the parenthesis immediately before the key (or key).

Decimal Digits

The number of decimal digits in a calculation result can be specified; to do this use the key in combination with the keys to . In this case, the display has to be switched to fixed point (FIX), scientific notation (SCI) or engineering notation (ENG).

No decimal digits.
(The number will be roundet to the next integer number.)
One decimal digit.
(The number will be roundet to the first decimal digit.)
Nine decimal digits.
(The number will be roundet to the 9th decimal digit.)

To clear the TAB setting (definition of places after decimal digit) leave the calculator application and restart it again. Then the normal display will be shown again.

0.5 9 0.055555556 (FIX mode)
(The number is roundet to the 9th place after decimal digit.)
5.555555556E-002 (SCI mode)
(The mantissa is roundet to the 9th place after decimal digit.)
5.556E-002 (SCI mode)
(The mantissa is roundet to the third place after decimal digit.)
55.556E-003 (ENG mode)

Priority Levels of Operations

The program is provided with a function that judges the priority level of individual calculations; thus, you can enter your calculations in the same order as in a given mathematical formula. The following table shows the priority level of individual calculations.

Priority Levels of Operations

1. Functions as sin, x2 or %
2. yx,
3. ×, ÷
4. +, -
5. =, M+
(Calculations which are given the same priority level are executed sequentially.)

Key operation and sequence of calculation in 5 + 2 × sin 30 + 24 × 53 =

The numbers - show the sequence of the calculations.
When calculations with higher priority are executed, those with lower priority must be saved in the meantime. The program is equipped with additional memories for such pending operations.
As these memories are also used for calculations with parentheses, calculations can be performed according to a given mathematical formula unless parentheses and pending operations exceed 30 levels in total.

Calculations without Parentheses

Pending of 1 level
Pending of 2 levels
Pending of 3 levels
By pressing the key, 3 pending levels are reached. After pressing the key the calculations "yx" will be performed with highest priority and "×" with the same priority. Thus, after pressing the key, two pending levels remain.

Calculations with Parenthesis

i)4 numbers and operations stay pending.
ii)After pressing the key first the calculation between parentheses 3 - 4 ÷ 5 will be performed; 2 calculations stay pending.


Computer engineers and programmers are in need of simple conversions between various numeric systems as well as for calculations with boolean logic. With the calculator SC-102P this problem is solved by providing the LOGIC mode. The LOGIC mode can be selected by tapping of the corresponding field at the right border.

How the calculator looks in LOGIC mode (hexadecimal notation selected):

On color devicesOn B/W devices

The calculator can operate with integer values up to a bit width of 32 bits in four different numeric systems.

Conversion Between Different Numeric Systems

To convert a number to its hexadecimal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to hexadecimal notation HEX. ( is shown in the displayed.)
To convert a number to its decimal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to decimal notation DEC. ( is shown in the display.)
To convert a number to its octal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to octal notation OCT. ( is shown in the display.)
To convert a nubmer to its binary equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to binary notation BIN. ( is shown in the display.)

Conversion from decimal 30 to hexadecimal notation:
Press key if calculator is not currently in decimal notation ( is displayed).
30 1E

Further conversion of hexadecimal 1E to binary format:

The Hexadecimal Notation

The hexadecimal notation system is mainly used in computer programming. The base for a hexadecimal number is 16; hexadecimal numbers consist of the digits 0 to 9 and the major letters A to F, which stand for the numbers 10 to 15 in the decimal system.

Keys for the letters A to F will be shown as soon as the calculator is in hexadecimal notation. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in hexadecimal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed.

The Decimal Notation

In LOGIC mode even in decimal notation only integer values with a bit width of a maximum of 32 bits can be handled.

In decimal notation only the keys for the digits 0 to 9 are shown. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in decimal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed.

The Octal Notation

The base for a octal number is 8; octal numbers consist of the digits 0 to 7.

In octal notation only the keys for the digits 0 to 7 are shown. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in octal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed.

The Binary Notation

The binary notation system is mainly used in computer programming. The base for a binary number is 2; binary numbers consist of the digits 0 and 1.

In binary notation only the keys for the digits 0 and 1 are shown. A smaller font is used so all of the 32 positions can be displayed in one row. Additionally, a ruler is shown above the digits to support the identification of nibbles, bytes and words. The symbol means that numerical values on the display are shown in binary notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed.

Direct Bit Manipulation

In the binary notation system a digit can be swapped from 0 to 1 and vice versa by tapping on the digit position below the ruler. If an empty area is tapped then the digit 1 will be set there. With this functionality it is possible to directly modify the bits of a value.

Selecting the Bit Width, Number Display and Sign Mode

The calculator can be switched to bit widths of 8, 16 and 32 bits which are commonly used in the computer industry. With the key the next higher and with the key the next lower bit width is selected. The currently selected bit width is shown in the display.

With the key the display of the numbers can be toggled so that they are shown with or without leading zeros. Press the key once to show numbers with leading zeros filled to the selcted bit width. Press the key once more to switch back to normal number display.

Settings: , notation,
0000 01AB
AB8 0000 0AB8
456 002E 79D0
2E 79D0

With the key, the calculator can be switched between signed and unsigned mode. In the display the symbol appears if the signed mode is active.

Signs are only shown in HEX, DEC and OCT notations. In the BIN notation only the bits are shown, always without a sign.

With the key the sign of a number can be changed. If the sign of a positive number is changed, the 2's complement of the number is calculated. In signed mode the number will then be shown as negative number in unsigned mode as 2's complement.

Settings: , notation,
180 -180

Number Range

The selected bit width in combination with the sign mode has influence on the number range which can be handled. In contrast to the SCIENTIFIC mode, too big or too small numbers do not lead to an error condition in LOGIC mode but to an overflow.

Bit WidthNum. Sys.Sign ModeNumber Range
8 BITDEC0~255
8 BITDECSIGN-128~127
8 BITOCT0~377
8 BITOCTSIGN-200~177
8 BITBIN0~11111111
8 BITBINSIGN0~11111111
16 BITDEC0~65535
16 BITDECSIGN-32768~32767
16 BITOCT0~17 7777
16 BITOCTSIGN-10 0000~7 7777
16 BITBIN0~1111111111111111
16 BITBINSIGN0~1111111111111111
32 BITDEC0~4294967295
32 BITDECSIGN-2147483648~2147483647
32 BITOCT0~377 7777 7777
32 BITOCTSIGN-200 0000 0000~177 7777 7777
32 BITBIN0~11111111111111111111111111111111
32 BITBINSIGN0~11111111111111111111111111111111

Solve of 250 + 15 with unsigned 8 bit arithmetic (overflow calculation):

Press the key to select decimal notation ( is shown in the display).
Press the until is shown in display.
With the key select unsigned mode (symbol cleared in display).

250  15  9

Display the result of the last calculation in binary notation:

Basic Arithmetic Calculations

The arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can be used like in SCIENTIFIC mode. But only integer values can be handled.

Calculating with Numbers in LOGIC Mode

Addition of two hexadecimal numbers
A4 + BA =
A4 BA 15E 

4 × 4 =
4 10 

32 bit multiplication of the octal number 73 with the binary number 110 and display of the result as a decimal number
73 oct × 110 bin =
Press until is shown in display
73 111011 
110 101100010 

(12 + D) × B =
12 D

43A 3CB 6F 
A38 2FB 73D 

The following hints have to be noted:

Input: E 3 Result: 4 
Input: B 3 2 Result: 6 

With the modulo operation the remainder of a division can be computed.
Input: E 3 Result: 2 

By pressing the key it is possible to calculate the complement of a number in a simple way.
Settings: Unsigned mode (symbol is not shown, notation,
Input: AB Result: FFFF FF55

Boolean Algebra

The operators of the boolean algebra AND, OR, XOR (exclusive or) and NOT can be used. In a logical operation two numbers will be transformed to binary representation (2's complement) and the logical relation will then be evaluated for every bit pair.

The following section will shown the results of the logical operators for these bit evaluations:


After every bit pair has been assigned the corresponding result (a 1 or a 0) according to the above table, the resulting binary number will be converted back to the selected numeric system. This number is the result of the logical operation.

With the settings , notation, , please perform the following calculations:
41 AND 27 
Input: 41  27  Result: 9  
41 OR 27 
Input: 41  27  Result: 59  
41 XOR 27 
Input: 41  27  Result: 50  
-4 (2's complement)
Input: Result: -4  

NOT x can generaly be computed with the equation NOT x = -(x + 1).

Bit Shift Operations

With the keys and it is possible to perform bit shift operations. Thereby the value will be transformed to binary representation and the single bits will be shiftet to the left or the right by the given amount. The result will be transformed back to the selected numeric system which yields the result of the operation.

Bit Shift Right

During the bit shift right operation the single bits of a value will be shiftet to the right by the given amount of positions. This is equivalent to a division by the power of 2.

Calculation of 80 » 3 is equivalent to 80/23:
before shifting8001010000
after shifting1000001010
80 310

In signed mode () an arithmetical shift right will be performed whereas in unsigned mode a logical shift right is executed. On a logical shift right the single bits will be strictly shifted right by the given amount of positions.

Arithmetic shift right of decimal -120 about one position (is equivalent to a division by two) and display of the result as binary number:
Settings: ,
120 -120
1 11000100
Logical shift right of the result from the previous calculation by 2 positions and display of the resulting value in binary notation.
2 49

Bit Shift Left

During the bit shift left operation the single bits of a value will be shiftet the given amount of positions to the left. This is equivalent to a multiplication with the power of 2.

Calculation of 3 « 2 is equivalent to 3 × 22:
before shifting30000 0011
after shifting120000 1100
3 212

Parenthesis and Priority Levels of Operations

During the processing of complex expressions the calculator follows a set of predefined priorities which determine the sequence in which the operators have to be applied. In LOGIC mode, the same rules for priority of operators and parenthesis are valid as described in SCIENTIFIC mode in section Priority Levels of Operations but the additional boolean operators have to be taken into account:

Priority Levels of Operations

1. Functions like not or x2
2. ×, ÷, mod
3. +, -
4. «, »
5. and
6. xor
7. or
8. =, M+
(Calculations which are on the same priority level are executed in sequence.)


Usually, the digits and operators will be entered by pressing the displayed keys. But all digits and some operators can also be entered using the Graffiti® region of the Palm device or pasted from the clipboard. Values can also be copied to the clipboard.

Entering using Graffiti®

Following there is a table containing the keys which have been assigned a symbol which can be entered using Graffiti®

to "0" to "9" to "0" to "9"
".", "," to "a" to "f", "A" to "F"
"_" "_"
" ", "C" " "
Backspace Backspace
"/" "/"
"*" "*"
"-" "-"
"+" "+"
"=", Enter "=", Enter
"(", "[", "{" "(", "[", "{"
")", "]", "}" ")", "]", "}"
"%" "&"
"^" "n", "N", "~"
"!" "o", "O", "|"
"x", "X", "^"
"m", "M", "%"
"l", "L", "<">
"r", "R", ">"

The Graffiti® state indicator is located in the lower-right corner.

Data Exchange with the Clipboard

With the menu items in the menu "Edit", the value currently shown on the display can be cut or copied to the clipboard or a value in the clipboard can be pasted to the SC-102P.


While in an error condition the display shows the symbol "E":

An error will be raised from a calculation or command which exceeds the capacity of the program. An error can be cleared by pressing the key.

Error Conditions

  1. If the absolute value of a calculation result is greater than 1.7976931348623×10308 (not in LOGIC mode).
  2. If a number is divided by 0 (zero) (e.g. 5  0  )
  3. If the absolute value of a result of memory calculation is greater than 1.7976931348623×10308 (not in LOGIC mode).
  4. If the pending operation inclusive open parentheses exceeds 30 levels.
  5. For scientific functions an error occurs if the calculations exceed the following ranges:

Calculation Range

Numerical calculations:
For calculations with x, the value of x has to be in the given ranges:

-1.7976931348624×10308 < x<= -2.23×10-308 for a negative x
2.23×10-308 <= x < 1.7976931348624×10308 for a positive x

The displayed value for x will be limited by the number of displayable positions.

FunctionRange of x
sin x
cos x
tan x
DEG: |x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
RAD: |x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
GRAD: |x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
Further only for tan x: (n = integer)
DEG: |x 90(2n-1)
RAD: |x (/2)(2n-1)
GRAD: |x 100(2n-1)
-1 <= x <= 1
tan-1x |x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
sinh x
cosh x
-710.47586007394 <= x <= 710.47586007394
tanh x -1.7976931348623×10308 <= x <= 1.7976931348623×10308
sinh-1x |x| < 1.3407807929943×10154
cosh-1x 1 <= x < 1.3407807929943×10154
tanh-1x |x| < 1
ln x
log x
2.23×10-308 <= x < 1.7976931348624×10308
ex -1.7976931348624×10308 < x <= 709.78271289338
10x -1.3407807929943×10154 < x <= 308.25471555991
|x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
1/x |x| < 1.7976931348624×10308; x  0
x2 |x| < 1.3407807929943×10154
0 <= x < 1.7976931348624×10308
n! 0 <= n <= 170 (n = integer)
|x| < 1.7976931348624×10308
(yx=10x log y)
if y > 0, -2.23×10-308 < x log y < 308.25471555992
if y = 0, x > 0
if y < 0, x = integer
and 2.23×10-308 < x log |y| < 308.25471555992

(=101/x log y)
if y > 0, -2.23×10-308 < 1/x log y < 308.25471555992; x  0
if y = 0, x > 0
if y < 0, x or 1/x have to be integer and not zero,
and 2.23×10-308 < 1/x log |y| < 308.25471555992
xy  r
(x2+y2) < 1.7976931348624×10308
y/x < 1.7976931348624×10308  = tan-1(y/x)
r,   xy
r < 1.7976931348624×10308 x = r cos 
|r sin | < 1.7976931348624×10308 y = r sin 
|r cos | < 1.7976931348624×10308